Thousands of Eritreans are streaming out of the country
THE hotels of Adigrat, an entrepot near Ethiopia’s border with Eritrea, are always busy during Meskel, a feast celebrated annually by Orthodox Christians in both countries. But this time room prices have soared. Returning visitors reckon the numbers congregating in the city’s streets are twice those of previous years.

LIBERALISM made the modern world, but the modern world is turning against it. Europe and America are in the throes of a popular rebellion against liberal elites, who are seen as self-serving and unable, or unwilling, to solve the problems of ordinary people. Elsewhere a 25-year shift towards freedom and open markets has gone into reverse, even as China, soon to be the world’s largest economy, shows that dictatorships can thrive.

In their different ways Rousseau, Marx and Nietzsche rejected all these ideas. Rousseau doubted that progress takes place at all. Marx thought progress is ordained, but that it is generated by class struggle and revolution. Nietzsche feared that society was descending into nihilism, but appealed to the heroic übermensch in each person as its saviour. Those coming after them did terrible things in their name